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The importance of mechanical parts surface quality

by:Xavier      2020-09-24
Mechanical equipment parts damage, heavily always starts from the part surface, the machining surface quality, its purpose is to master each process of mechanical processing on the effect of machining surface quality, in order to use these rules to control the machining process, eventually to improve product quality, enhance the purpose of the product performance. A, mechanical processing surface quality of the machine parts processing quality is not only refers to the meaning of the machining accuracy, also including the machining table and the quality, it is after the parts processing surface layer of the integrity of the state. Table after mechanical processing, there are always some micro geometry shape deviation, physical mechanics property of the surface layer is also changing. As a result, the machining table and the quality including the geometrical characteristics of the machining table and the table and physical and mechanical properties of layer of the two parties, content. After machining parts surface micro geometry structure and the surface of metal material properties change. After machining the parts list and not ideal smooth surface, it exists different degrees of rough corrugated, chill, table and defects such as cracks. Is only a very thin layer, but the use of the machine parts had a great impact on future performance; Parts wear, corrosion and fatigue damage is started from the parts list, especially the modern industrial production of the machine are development in the direction of high speed motors,, multi-function, work in high temperature and high pressure, high speed, high stress under the condition of mechanical parts, any defects table and layer will accelerate the failure of parts. Therefore, must attach much importance to the machining table and the quality. Second, mechanical processing surface quality affect the performance of product use, A) The influence of surface quality on wear resistance; The wear resistance of parts and materials, lubrication condition and parts of table and factors such as quality especially in the first two conditions have determined under the premise of parts of the table and quality plays a decisive role. When two parts list and contact, the table and convex peak of first contact, so the actual contact and product is far less than the theoretical contact and product. Table and more rough, the actual contact product is small, convex peak units and pressure will be great, table and wear and tear more easily. Even under the condition of a lubricating oil, is because the pressure more than the critical value of oil film tension in contact with the damage to the formation of oil film and table and the wear and tear. Known from the analysis of the above, the table and roughness of the parts list and wear. Generally speaking, surface roughness value is smaller, its wear resistance, the better, but not surface roughness value yue xiaoyue wear-resisting. ( 2) Parts surface quality on fatigue strength of parts under the action of alternating load, the influence of the table and the uneven micro concave valley and table and the defect layer is easy to cause stress concentration and fatigue crack parts of fatigue damage. Tests show that decreasing part table and roughness value can improve the fatigue strength of parts. Therefore, for some important parts such as crankshaft under cyclic loading, the crank and shaft neck, often using the finishing process after finishing as to reduce the surface roughness value of parts to improve the fatigue strength. Work hardening effect on parts of fatigue strength is very big also. Table and moderate hardening layer can be formed in the parts list and a hardening layer, it can hinder the surface layer of the appearance of fatigue crack, so that the parts fatigue strength increases. But the parts list and degree of hardening layer is too large, it is easy to produce cracks, therefore, the degree of hardening and hardening depth of parts has should be controlled in a certain range. Table and layer has a great influence on the parts fatigue strength and residual stress, when the surface layer of residual compressive stress, can delay fatigue crack extension, improve the fatigue strength of parts; When the surface layer of residual tensile stress, easy to make the parts list and cracks and reduce its fatigue strength. Third, factors affecting the surface quality of the process ( A) Machining effect on surface roughness of cutting in the processing table and left a residue cutting and product, its shape is a rerun of cutting tool geometry. Reduce feeding, Lord Angle, Angle and increase the tip arc radius, can reduce the residual and the height of the product. In addition, the increase of appropriate cutting tool rake Angle to reduce the degree of plastic deformation, the reasonable choice of lubricants and improve the quality of cutting tool grinding to minimize cutting the plastic deformation and inhibition of tumor, the generation of the flake's burr, is also the effective measures to reduce the surface roughness value. ( 2) Experiments show the influence of cutting parameter, the higher the cutting speed and chip cutting process and machining table and the degree of plastic deformation is light, and surface roughness is low. In addition, the devolop tumor was produced at a lower speed, the devolop tumor with or without, the surface roughness is larger, the influence of the two elements of cutting dosages, feeding and the influence of cutting speed on surface roughness is more sensitive, feeding, chip deformation also is big, after the chip and tool rake and friction and knife with the machining table and the growing friction, thereby increasing the workpiece surface roughness values. Therefore reduce the feeding is helpful to reduce the surface roughness value.
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