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Classification and types of nc machine tools

by:Xavier      2020-07-04

there are many kinds of CNC machine tools, can be classified from different angles, different classification criteria for different categories, by our today to introduce one of the two kinds of classification methods, it is classified according to the movement mode and control mode, the concrete content is as follows:

CNC machine tool according to the movement way points, can be divided into:

( 1) Position control system

only control the position of the tool to move from one point to another point, and in the process of moving without machining, such as coordinate boring machine, drilling machine, punching machine and so on. Coordinates have higher positioning accuracy, in order to improve the production efficiency, using the highest feed speed of machine tool set movement, before the close anchor point to be graded or slow down in a row, so that low speed towards the finish line, thereby reducing the inertia of the moving parts overshoot and therefore cause the positioning error. In the process of locating mobile without machining, so the trajectory without any requirements.

( 2) Linear control system

linear control system is to control the cutting tool or basic workbench with a certain velocity, along the direction parallel to an axis, from one location to another location accurate movement. Also known as point linear movement control system.

( 3) Profile control system

is for two or more than two axes simultaneous control ( Two and a half shaft, two axis, three axis, four axis, five-axis linkage) , it is not only to control the beginning and end of the machine moving parts coordinates, and to control the whole process of every bit of speed, direction and displacement, namely to trajectory control processing, work out the outline of requirements. The slope of the trajectory is any straight line, arc, spiral, etc. The function of this kind of machine tool nc device is the most complete, can be more than two coordinates and coordinates linkage control, can control the points and lines.

CNC machine tool according to the movement way points, can be divided into:

( 1) Open-loop CNC machine

means without feedback control system, the system has no position feedback components, usually adopt stepper motor as the actuator. Input data after the operation of numerical control system, issue instructions pulse, through the annular distributor and drive circuit, make the stepping motor turned a step away from the Angle of, again through the drive mechanism drives the workbench mobile a pulse equivalent distance. Moving parts of the movement speed and displacement is determined by the input pulse frequency and pulse number.

( 2) A half closed loop nc machine tool

in the drive motor end or at the end of transmission screw installation angular displacement detection device ( Photoelectric encoder or inductosyn) , by detecting the perform component or screw Angle of indirect measurement of position or actual displacement, then feedback to the CNC system. To obtain higher accuracy than the open loop system, but its displacement accuracy is lower than that in the closed-loop system, compared with the closed loop system, the stability is easy to implement. Now most of the nc machine tools are widely used in the half closed loop feed servo system, large inertia of moving parts is not included in the machine tool detection range.


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